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Potions are bottled substances which give players and mobs a limited-time or instant status effect if drunk or within its splash radius when thrown (in the case of lingering and splash potions). All drinkable potions are stackable in 1.16.2's combat test snapshot 7c (video: Minecraft 1.16.2 Combat Test Snapshot 7C : Stackable Potions!)

Potion-Brewing Procedure

1. Start by crafting a brewing stand in a crafting table by arranging the ingredients in the following manner (it is possible to get one from a village church and mining it with a pickaxe as of 1.14 and get one from an End Ship as of 1.9):

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Brewing Stand
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Blaze Rod
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Cobblestone
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Cobblestone

2. In addition to the brewing stand, a player will need blaze powder and 1-3 glass bottles (crafted using 3 glass) in their respective slots (shown below), along with a water source to fill the bottles with (a water source block or a cauldron).

The brewing interface of the Brewing Stand.

3. Fill the glass bottles with water by right-clicking on a water source while holding the bottles. Once a player has finished filling the bottles, they can begin brewing.

4. Put 1-3 water bottles and 1 blaze powder in the brewing stand and then put the first base ingredient (usually Nether Wart) in the top slot. When it finishes brewing, a player should have an Awkward Potion if they used nether wart.

5. Once a player has an awkward potion, they can put other ingredients in the top slot to make several different potions.

TIP: If a player is unsure which ingredients to use, look at the potion recipes section below.

Ingredients

Ingredients have a wide range of effects most of which develop certain ilk of potions with a few ingredients that specify the ilk of potion being brewed.

Bases

Bases are key ingredients that start off the brewing process. Bases are the first ingredient added to the glass bottles. The most commonly used base is the Nether wart since it is needed to make the largest range of possible options. The ilks of bases are:

Secondary Ingredients

Secondary ingredients are the ingredients that determine the ilk of potion (in other words, the effect). They are:

Converters

Converters describe the aspects of the current potion. You can't use 2 at once. They can alter the length-of-effect, positivity, or use. The types of converters are:

Potion Recipes

Fire Resistance (3:00)

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Nether Wart
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Magma Cream


Fire Resistance Extended (8:00)

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Nether Wart
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Magma Cream
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Redstone


Harming (Instant)

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Nether Wart
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Glistering Melon
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Fermented Spider Eye
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Nether Wart
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Spider Eye
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Fermented Spider Eye

Harming II (Instant)

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Nether Wart
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Glistering Melon
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Fermented Spider Eye
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Glowstone Dust
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Nether Wart
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Spider Eye
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Fermented Spider Eye
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Glowstone Dust


Healing (Instant)

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Nether Wart
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Glistering Melon


Healing II (Instant)

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Nether Wart
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Glistering Melon
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Glowstone Dust


Invisibility (3:00)

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Nether Wart
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Golden Carrot
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Fermented Spider Eye


Invisibility Extended (8:00)

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Nether Wart
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Golden Carrot
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Fermented Spider Eye
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Redstone


Leaping (3:00)

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Nether Wart
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Rabbit's Foot


Leaping II (1:30)

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Nether Wart
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Rabbit's Foot
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Glowstone Dust

Night Vision (3:00)

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Nether Wart
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Golden Carrot


Night Vision Extended (8:00)

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Nether Wart
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Golden Carrot
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Redstone


Poison (0:45)

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Nether Wart
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Spider Eye

Poison II (0:22)

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Nether Wart
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Spider Eye
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Glowstone Dust


Regeneration (0:45)

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Nether Wart
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Ghast Tear


Regeneration Extended (1:30)

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Nether Wart
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Ghast Tear
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Redstone


Regeneration II (0:22)

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Nether Wart
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Ghast Tear
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Glowstone Dust


Slowness (1:30)

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Nether Wart
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Sugar
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Fermented Spider Eye
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Nether Wart
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Magma Cream
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Fermented Spider Eye


Slowness Extended (3:00)

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Nether Wart
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Sugar
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Fermented Spider Eye
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Redstone
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Nether Wart
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Magma Cream
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Fermented Spider Eye
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Redstone


Strength (3:00)

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Nether Wart
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Blaze Powder


Strength Extended (8:00)

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Nether Wart
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Blaze Powder
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Redstone


Strength II (1:30)

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Nether Wart
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Blaze Powder
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Glowstone Dust


Swiftness (3:00)

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Nether Wart
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Sugar


Swiftness Extended (8:00)

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Nether Wart
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Sugar
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Redstone


Swiftness II (1:30)

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Nether Wart
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Sugar
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Glowstone Dust


Water Breathing (3:00)

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Nether Wart
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Pufferfish


Water Breathing Extended (8:00)

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Nether Wart
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Pufferfish
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Redstone


Weakness (1:30)

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Fermented Spider Eye


Weakness Extended (4:00)

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Fermented Spider Eye
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Redstone


Slow Falling (1:30)

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Nether Wart
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Phantom Membranes

Slow Falling Extended (4:00)

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Nether Wart
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Phantom Membranes
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Redstone


Enhancing Potions

There are different categories of potions, like poison's variations: Poison, Poison II, and Poison Extended. A usual potion has the usual effects, which come naturally when it is 1st brewed, but some potions can be enhanced in 2 ways.

Extending Duration

If a player adds redstone to a potion, it makes the potion last longer, thereby creating Poison extended ("ext" is added to the end of the potion's name). This enhancement can be applied to most potions, except for those that have an instant effect (i.e. Harming or Healing).

Increasing Effects

If a player adds glowstone dust to a potion, it makes the potion more potent/stronger, thereby making Poison II. Some potions can't be enhanced this way, as they activate an effect that can be only active or inactive (i.e Fire Resistance or Night Vision).

  • If a witch is killed while it is holding its healing potion, there is a 45% chance that the witch will drop its potion, and a 25% chance for other potions to drop such as Instant Health II.


Potion Effects

The following effects only apply to the regular potion without any duration or potency extents added to it.

  • Fire Resistance - Gives immunity to damage from fire, lava, and ranged Blaze attacks.
  • Harming - Inflicts 3/6 damage instantly.
  • Healing - Restores 3/6 health instantly.
  • Invisibility - Renders invisible, but equipped/wielded items and armor are still visible to others.
  • Leaping - Can jump higher than normal. Higher-level increases jump height.
  • Luck - Increases odds of getting higher-quality items in dungeon chests, fishing, etc. (Minecraft: Java Edition only)
  • Night Vision - Makes everything appear at the max light level, including underwater areas.
  • Poison - Deals damage over time with the poison effect. Higher Level deals more damage over time. It cannot kill you, but bring you to half a heart.
  • Regeneration - Restores health over time by approximately 1 heart every 2.4 seconds. Higher-level lets you regenerate faster. 
  • Slowness - Movement speed is decreased by 1 minute and 30 seconds.
  • Swiftness - Increases walking speed, sprinting speed, and jumping distance by 20%. It increases to 40% for level II.
  • Strength - Adds 1 and 1/2 heart /3 damage to all melee attacks with or without a weapon.
  • Water Breathing - Lets something breathe underwater or stay underwater for a longer time. It also gives extra vision underwater. 
  • Weakness - Reduces all melee attacks by 1 heart damage. This will also make the victim unable to deal damage without using a weapon.
  • Slow Falling - Makes the affected entity “glide” instead of fall.
  • Bad Luck - Shrinks the odds of getting treasure from fishing. 
  • Turtle Master - Slows down but also makes take less damage. (Resistance III and Slowness IV)

Trivia

  • The potion of healing harms undead mobs (this includes mobs like Zombies, Skeletons, Wither Skeletons, and the Wither), but the Potion of Harming heals those mobs. 
  • The idea of Sugar being used to make potions of swiftness may be based on the theory that sugar makes some hyperactive. 
  • The idea of golden carrots being used to make night vision potions may be based on the theory made by the British Air Force that carrots help people see better (which is only true in people with low amounts of vitamin A). 
  • When throwing a splash potion with a duration downwards, the duration of the potion will be lowered. Thus, it is usually better to throw a splash upwards for the full duration. This idea is the opposite when it comes to lingering potions, however.
  • Even if night vision is increased, one still gets the same amount of vision. It is impossible to increase night vision to Night Vision II on Survival Mode than it is on Creative through the use of commands. 
  • In Java edition, with the command /give <player> potion, it is possible to get an "Uncraftable Potion", which does not give any status effects.
  • Witches and Wandering Traders are some of the only mobs that have the ability to consume potions in the game.

Gallery

Click for full Potions gallery.

Videos

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